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High Blood Pressure Affects Your Eyes, But How?

High Blood Pressure Affects Your Eyes, But How?

Eye Problems


We know high blood pressure is bad for our health and can lead to physical disability, a fatal heart attack, or even a stroke. However, do you know how it can affect your eyes?

Besides significant damage to the body, high blood pressure can also affect eyesight and lead to serious vision ailments. It can damage the retinal blood vessels, the area at the back of the eye. This condition is known as hypertensive retinopathy.

A report indicates that high blood pressure is directly proportional to the issue of hypertensive retinopathy. The damage to eyesight can be serious if hypertensive retinopathy is not treated properly. However, proper treatment and lifestyle changes can control high blood pressure, which can help in reducing the risk of hypertensive retinopathy. Hence, it is advisable to visit the eye care hospital near you in case you have high BP and vision problems.

Let us understand hypertensive retinopathy in detail.

What Is Hypertensive Retinopathy?

The retina is located in the back. The retina transforms light into signals sent to the brain for understanding. When the blood pressure rises, the walls of retinal blood vessels get thickened, which may narrow the blood vessels, restricting blood transfer to the retina. In some cases, it swallows up the retina. High blood pressure can damage the retinal blood vessels, limit vision, and pressure the optical nerve, causing eyesight difficulties. Such a condition is called hypertensive retinopathy.

Hypertensive Retinopathy Stages

Hypertensive retinopathy is divided into four stages. These include:

  • Stage 1: At this stage, retinal arteries slightly begin to narrow.
  • Stage 2: The narrowing of retinal arteries progresses, which is known as arteriovenous nicking.
  • Stage 3: Stage 2 progresses further and begins damaging the retina. Also, smooth white areas, cotton-wool spots, and hard discharge starts to appear. Discharge here are plaques composed of lipids and proteins that ooze out of the retina.
  • Stage 4: The optical disc starts to swell, which causes severe vision problems. The patient is also at risk for heart attack, kidney failure, and stroke.

Causes and Symptoms of Hypertensive Retinopathy

Causes of Hypertensive Retinopathy

High blood pressure is the root cause of hypertensive retinopathy. High blood pressure happens when the blood force against the arteries is too high. The force results from the blood pumping out and into the arteries.

When the blood flows at a higher pressure, the tissues will begin to stretch and eventually become injured, which leads to many problems over time.

Hypertensive retinopathy occurs when the blood pressure is too high for a significant period. High blood pressure can happen due to the following:

  • A lack of exercise or workout
  • Excessive weight
  • Too much salt intake
  • An unhealthy lifestyle

High blood pressure can also happen due to heredity reasons.

Symptoms of Hypertensive Retinopathy

One may not experience any symptoms of hypertensive retinopathy until the condition progresses. Signs and symptoms include:

  • Diminished sight 
  • Swelling in the eye 
  • Bursting of retinal blood vessel 
  • Diplopia followed by headaches

Get medical help if you start experiencing sudden changes in your eyesight.

Hypertensive Retinopathy Treatment and Precautions

Hypertensive Retinopathy Treatment

Hypertensive retinopathy treatment involves managing and lowering high blood pressure with prescriptions and lifestyle changes.

  • Lifestyle Moderations

A fruits and vegetables rich diet can play a vital role in lowering blood pressure. Regular exercise, less salt consumption, and limiting caffeine and alcoholic beverages can contribute to healthy blood pressure. Quitting smoking is essential. If overweight, start to lose weight to control high blood pressure.

  • Medications

Doctors may prescribe blood pressure medications such as diuretics or beta-blockers. In case of severity, a patient may have irreversible eye damage that causes permanent vision loss.


It is crucial to take preventive steps to avoid high blood pressure and hypertensive retinopathy. Some of the precautionary steps include:

  • Taking prescribed blood pressure medication regularly. 
  • Regular exercise. 
  • Balanced and healthy diet. 
  • Quitting smoking. 
  • Regular medical check-ups to ensure that blood pressure is normal.

Hypertensive Retinopathy Treatment at Netralayam

At Netralayam, our vitreo-retinal services team comprises the finest optic medical professionals with vast knowledge of hypertensive retinopathy. Our professionals hold a remarkable experience in optical issues, which allows them to provide complete assistance to their patients. This, combined with minimally invasive, advanced technology, provides the best relief to our patients.


Patients with high blood pressure are often at risk of hypertensive retinopathy. Besides, high blood pressure is also the root cause of coronary disease. Therefore, to control blood pressure and mitigate the risk of hypertensive retinopathy, it is best to start following a healthy lifestyle, taking proper medications, and making routine check-ups. In case of vision disturbance or any uneasiness in the eyesight, it is recommendable to contact the best eye hospital or clinic near you without delay.

Consult Netralayam for Your Hypertensive Retinopathy Today!

Hypertensive retinopathy is a serious condition that can cause other vision-threatening conditions as well. Hence, consult the best eye hospital in Kolkata, Netralayam, for the finest hypertensive retinopathy treatment. Schedule an appointment with one of our ophthalmologists today.



The mission of Netralayam is to provide tertiary level superspeciality eye care service of highest quality to all sections of the society through a team of competent, committed and compassionate professionals in a patient-friendly environment.

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